- What are the stages of the boot process?
- Master Boot Record
- Bootloader (LILO, GRUB)
- Run Levels
- Where is the GRUB menu list?
- How do I get rid of Ubuntu splash screen / progress bar and show scrolling text?
splashfrom "kernel" line in
- What are the run levels for Ubuntu?
1: single user
3-5: same as 2
- Where can I find the default startup programs for run level 2?
- How do I update the symbolic links in
update-rc.d. For help,
- Where is the default run level set in Ubuntu?
- Where is another location for startup programs?
- What are some alternatives to rebooting?
- Restart the display manager, gdm
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restartor
- Switch to runlevel 1 then back to runlevel 2
sudo telinit 1then
telinit 2(this didn't work for me; I wasn't able to get to runlevel 1.)
- This article has a lot of good tips including Alt+SysReq+"Raising Skinny Elephants Is Utterly Boring" - http://www.linuxclues.com/articles/09.htm
- Restart the display manager, gdm
- How can I reboot?
Keeping Ubuntu time up to date
I would think Ubuntu would install something to keep the system clock from
drifting, but it seems they haven't. There are at least 2 options: ntpdate and
ntpd. Ntpdate is used from a cron script to sync the time once a day. Ntpd runs
as a daemon and ajusts the time continually but it costs resources. On my machine,
ps -e -O rss | grep ntpd, I got 1.3 MB of memory use.
Here is how to install ntpd:
sudo apt-get install ntp
The ntp config file is located at:
This sources.list includes security, updates, and proposed (but not backports) and source for the main, restricted, universe, and multiverse repositories.
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty main restricted universe multiverse deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-security main restricted universe multiverse deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-security main restricted universe multiverse deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates restricted main universe multiverse deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-updates restricted main universe multiverse deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-proposed restricted main multiverse universe deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ jaunty-proposed restricted main multiverse universe
My filesystem changes
- For wmii:
sudo ln -s /usr/include/freetype2/freetype /usr/include/freetype
System config file changes:
These changes apply to Ubuntu Karmic
- Disable xsplash before session load:
Comment out the following from
if [ -x '/usr/bin/xsplash' ]; then /usr/bin/xsplash --daemon fi
- To run ~/.xsession from gdm: Create a '.desktop' file in '/usr/share/xsessions' [owned by root:root with permissions 644] whose 'Exec' entry is '/etc/X11/Xsession'.
How to show what you've installed with apt-get
Haven't found a way that I'm happy with yet. Here are some options:
sudo apt-get install apt-show-versions apt-show-versions
cat /var/log/dpkg.log | grep installed
- Make sure speakers are plugged in / power strip on. (For some reason, the power to my speakers keeps going out.
- Run gnome-volume-control. Make sure volume is up and not muted. (For some reason on Karmic this resets to mute on restart.)
Skype microphone troubleshooting
Running Skype 18.104.22.168-1 on Ubuntu Karmic
- Run gnome-volume-control. Select Microphone 1. Raise the volume up to almost Max.
- (Testing can be done with gnome-sound-recorder.)
- Karmic w/ Firefox 3.5.5
Can't click in Flash - http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1314910
~/.gtkrc-2.0. Edit as necessary.
(Hardware) System Information
sudo apt-get install sysinfo
[Desktop Entry] Name=~/.xsession Comment=User's .xsession Exec=/etc/X11/Xsession TryExec=/etc/X11/Xsession Icon= Type=Application
Can't create test file error
Trying to move datadir from /var/lib/mysql to /mnt/mysql-data on EC2
Had to edit
Troubleshooting X freezes
- Troubleshooting X freezes, hangs, and lockups
- Troubleshooting keyboard and mouse failure due to HAL breakage
Thinkpad W510 suspendhttp://math.umons.ac.be/an/W510/#ACPI
For Ubuntu 10.10:
Note: in 10.04, I had "xhci" instead of "xhci_hcd"
$ sudo apt-get install network-manager-vpnc
- Click on network manager icon in gnome-panel
- VPN Connections -> Cofigure VPN...
- Select file from my company
- Set user name
- Restart newtork-manager
$ sudo /etc/init.d/network-manager restart
- Click on network manager icon in gnome-panel
- VPN Connections -> My Company
- Enter password
VPN change to gain access to important stuff on our network¶
- click network icon - "VPN Connections" > "Configure VPN..." - highlight "My Company VPN" - "Edit" - "IPv4 Settings" tab - "Routes..." - uncheck "Use this connection only for resources on its network" - "OK" - "Apply" - "Close"
When the above vpn setup didn't work with my Verizon mifi¶
vpnc from the command line worked:
See also: http://www.chicagotech.net/routingissuesonvpn.htm.
IPSec gateway vpn.abc.mycompany.com IPSec ID MyCompanyVPN IPSec secret mygrouppassword #IKE Authmode hybrid Xauth username myusername
To use it, I run:
$ sudo vpnc mycompany
$ sudo vpnc-disconnect
vpnc: no response from target error¶
vpnc: no response from target
I added the following line to /etc/vpnc/mycompany.conf:
NAT Traversal Mode cisco-udp
Connection really slow and nothing happens: disabled encryption.
$ sudo vpnc --debug 2 --no-detach mycompany
$ man vpnc
Prevent vpnc from periodically disconnecting due to timeout¶
Start vpnc with the
--dpd-idle 0 option. e.g.:
$ sudo vpnc --debug 2 --dpd-idle 0 mycompany
Set the timezone on a server¶
run as root
# dpkg-reconfigure tzdata
Set the hostname on a server¶
run as root
# echo "plato" > /etc/hostname # hostname -F /etc/hostname
127.0.0.1 localhost.localdomain localhost 22.214.171.124 plato.example.com plato
HTML messages in Claws Mail¶
- Install extra plugins
$ sudo apt-get install claws-mail-extra-plugins
- Load the Fancy HTML plugin
Configuration -> Plugins.. -> Load... -> fancy.so
- Configure preferences
Configuration -> Preferences... -> Message View/Text Options, under "HTML messages", uncheck the first box and check the second and third boxes.
Configuration -> Preferences... -> Plugins/Fance, check "Auto-Load images" and uncheck "Block external content"
How to set the folders for Sent, Drafts, and Trash¶
Ensure that all folders (e.g. "Sent Items", "Deleted Items") are available:
- Configuration -> Preferences for current account... -> Receive
- Uncheck "Show subscribed folders only"
Set the folders:
- Configuration -> Preferences for current account... -> Advanced
- Select the appropriate folders
Set custom keyboard shortcuts for Claws Mail¶
You can also modify each menu shortcut by pressing any key(s) when focusing the mouse pointer on the item.
Change the location of the popup notification¶http://askubuntu.com/questions/130124/how-can-i-make-notifications-appear-on-a-specific-monitor
$ sudo apt-get install dconf-tools $ dconf-editor &
apps -> notify-osd. Change multihead-mode to "focus-follow"
How to suspend from the command line¶http://manpages.ubuntu.com/manpages/precise/man8/pm-action.8.html
$ sudo pm-suspend
The default TTY on Ubuntu is TTY7
How to determine which TTY you're currently on:
$ sudo fgconsole 7
How to switch to TTY1 from the command line
$ sudo chvt 1
How to switch to TTY1 by pressing a key combo:
CTRL + LEFT ALT + F1
How to switch to TTY7 by pressing a key combo:
CTRL + LEFT ALT + F7
Install Claws Mail on Ubuntu 12.04¶
The claws-mail package included in Ubuntu 12.04 has a bug that doesn't allow you to click any buttons in one of the Filtering dialogs. See http://www.thewildbeast.co.uk/claws-mail/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=2624. To fix, install the PPA from the Claws Mail team: https://launchpad.net/~claws-mail/+archive/ppa
$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:claws-mail/ppa
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install claws-mail
That did not work. So install from source:
1. sudo apt-get build-dep claws-mail 2. download claws mail source 3. untar 4. ./configure --prefix=/home/saltycrane/lib/claws-mail-3.8.1 5. make 6. make install
That didn't work either.
To get filtering working, I copied the filtering rules file:
Here is an example file:
[#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/BP] enabled rulename "Mark as read" all mark_as_read [#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/INBOX] enabled rulename "Archive" age_greater 90 move "#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Archive/Inbox" [#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Serverconfig] enabled rulename "Archive" age_greater 90 move "#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Archive/Serverconfig" [preglobal] [postglobal] [filtering] disabled rulename "Test (copy to)" all copy "#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/BP" set_tag "inbox" enabled rulename "Serverconfig (copy to)" from matchcase "email@example.com" copy "#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Serverconfig" enabled rulename "Jira (copy to)" from matchcase "email@example.com" copy "#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Jira" enabled rulename "Confluence (copy to)" from matchcase "email@example.com" copy "#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Confluence" enabled rulename "Jenkins (move to)" from matchcase "email@example.com" move "#firstname.lastname@example.org@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Jenkins" disabled rulename "Mark non-inbox messages as read" ~tag matchcase "inbox" mark_as_read enabled rulename "Build Announce" from matchcase "Build Annouce
" move "#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Build Announce" enabled rulename "Database builder" from matchcase "\"firstname.lastname@example.org\" " copy "#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Database builder" enabled rulename "Daily News (copy to)" from matchcase "firstname.lastname@example.org" copy "#email@example.com@owa013.msoutlookonline.net/Daily News"
Printer Settings from the command line Ubuntu 12.04¶
$ system-config-printer &
Settings from the command line Ubuntu 12.04¶
$ gnome-control-center &
How to resize an image from the command line¶
$ sudo apt-get install imagemagick
Resize an image
$ convert 2012-10-31_14-49-38_807.jpg -resize 50% 2012-10-31_14-49-38_807-halfsize.jpg
How to determine what type of (wireless) network adapter (card) you have¶
$ sudo lshw -c network
mtr - mtr combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool. ntop web based tool - ntop is the best tool to see network usage in a way similar to what top command does for processes i.e. it is network traffic monitoring software. You can see network status, protocol wise distribution of traffic for UDP, TCP, DNS, HTTP and other protocols. nmap - scan your server for open ports. iptraf netstat ss traceroute